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Other Names:

Cider Vinegar, Malus sylvestris, Vinagre de Manzana, Vinagre de Sidra de Manzana, Vinaigre de Cidre

APPLE CIDER VINEGAR Overview Information

Apple cider vinegar is fermented juice from crushed apples Like apple juice, it probably contains some pectin; vitamins B1, B2, and B6; biotin; folic acid; niacin; pantothenic acid; and vitamin C It also contains small amounts of the minerals sodium, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, iron, and magnesium Apple cider vinegar can also contain significant quantities of acetic acid and citric acid It is used to make medicine

How does it work?

Apple cider vinegar is the fermented juice of crushed apples It contains acetic acid and nutrients such as B vitamins and vitamin C Apple cider vinegar might help lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes by changing how foods get absorbed from the gut Apple cider vinegar might prevent the breakdown of some foods

APPLE CIDER VINEGAR Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence for:

  • Diabetes Some preliminary research suggests that consuming vinegar or apple cider vinegar might reduce blood sugar levels after a meal
  • Slow digestion (gastroparesis)
  • Weight loss
  • Leg cramps and pain
  • Unsettled stomach
  • Sore throats
  • Sinus problems
  • High blood pressure
  • Arthritis
  • Infection
  • Weak bones (osteoporosis)
  • Lowering cholesterol
  • Improving circulation
  • Acne
  • Sunburn
  • Shingles
  • Bites
  • Dandruff
  • Vaginal infections (vaginitis)
  • Other conditions
More evidence is needed to rate apple cider vinegar for these uses
APPLE CIDER VINEGAR Side Effects & Safety

Consuming apple cider vinegar in food amounts is LIKELY SAFE Apple cider vinegar is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when used short-term for medical purposes

Special Precautions & Warnings:


Moderate Interaction Be cautious with this combination

  • Digoxin (Lanoxin) interacts with APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

Large amounts of apple cider vinegar can decrease potassium levels in the body Low potassium levels can increase the side effects of digoxin (Lanoxin)

Insulin might decrease potassium levels in the body Large amounts of apple cider vinegar might also decrease potassium levels in the body Taking apple cider vinegar along with insulin might cause potassium levels in the body to be too low Avoid taking large amounts of apple cider vinegar if you take insulin

Large amounts of apple cider vinegar can decrease potassium levels in the body "Water pills" can also decrease potassium in the body Taking apple cider vinegar along with "water pills" might decrease potassium in the body too much


The appropriate dose of apple cider vinegar depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for apple cider vinegar Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using

Xu, K, Song, J, Ren, Y, Ma, H, Huang, J, and Du, X [Application of fingerprint chromatogram in quality assessment of apple cider] SePu 2007;25(1):93-95 View abstract

Brighenti F, Castellani G, Benini L, et al Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:242-7 View abstract

Budak NH, Kumbul Doguc D, Savas CM, et al Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:6638-44 View abstract

Duke J The Green Pharmacy Emmaus: Rodale Press, 1997

Hill LL, Woodruff LH, Foote JC, Barreto-Alcoba M Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:1141-4 View abstract

Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Björgell O, Almér LO Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study BMC Gastroenterol 2007;7:46 View abstract

Johnston CS, Kim CM, Buller AJ Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes Diabetes Care 2004;27:281-2 View abstract

Leeman M, Ostman E, Björck I Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:1266-71 View abstract

Lhotta K, Hofle G, Gasser R, Finkenstedt G Hypokalemia, hyperreninemia, and osteoporosis in a patient ingesting large amounts of cider vinegar Nephron 1998;80:242-3

Liljeberg H, Björck I Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:368-71 View abstract

Nutrition Search Nutrition Almanac, Revised Edition New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company 1979

Ostman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L, Björck I Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:983-8 View abstract

Shishehbor F, Mansoori A, Sarkaki AR, et al Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats Pak J Biol Sci 2008;11:2634-8 View abstract

Blackburn, B G, Mazurek, J M, Hlavsa, M, Park, J, Tillapaw, M, Parrish, M, Salehi, E, Franks, W, Koch, E, Smith, F, Xiao, L, Arrowood, M, Hill, V, da Silva, A, Johnston, S, and Jones, J L Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider Emerg InfectDis 2006;12(4):684-686 View abstract

Bobe, G, Thede, D J, Ten Eyck, T A, and Bourquini, L D Microbial levels in Michigan apple cider and their association with manufacturing practices J Food Prot 2007;70(5):1187-1193 View abstract

D'Amico, D J, Silk, T M, Wu, J, and Guo, M Inactivation of microorganisms in milk and apple cider treated with ultrasound J Food Prot 2006;69(3):556-563 View abstract

Garcia, L, Henderson, J, Fabri, M, and Oke, M Potential sources of microbial contamination in unpasteurized apple cider J Food Prot 2006;69(1):137-144 View abstract

Ingham, S C, Schoeller, E L, and Engel, R A Pathogen reduction in unpasteurized apple cider: adding cranberry juice to enhance the lethality of warm hold and freeze-thaw steps J Food Prot 2006;69(2):293-298 View abstract

Krueger, D A and Krueger, H W Isotopic composition of carbon in vinegars J Assoc Off AnalChem 1985;68(3):449-452 View abstract

Lhotta, K, Hofle, G, Gasser, R, and Finkenstedt, G Hypokalemia, hyperreninemia and osteoporosis in a patient ingesting large amounts of cider vinegar Nephron 1998;80(2):242-243 View abstract

Martinez-Viedma, P, Abriouel, H, Omar, N B, Valdivia, E, Lopez, R L, and Galvez, A Inactivation of exopolysaccharide and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde-producing lactic acid bacteria in apple juice and apple cider by enterocin AS-48 Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46(3):1143-1151 View abstract

Mhadhbi, H, Bouzouita, N, Martel, A, and Zarrouk, H Occurrence of mycotoxin patulin in apple-based products marketed in Tunisia J Food Prot 2007;70(11):2642-2645 View abstract

Vijayakumar, C and Wolf-Hall, C E Evaluation of household sanitizers for reducing levels of Escherichia coli on iceberg lettuce J Food Prot 2002;65(10):1646-1650 View abstract

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Conditions & Treatments Related to APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version © Therapeutic Research Faculty 2009

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